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Citation Guide: Turabian & Chicago

A guide to citing your sources

What is Turabian?

Turabian style is from Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.

The two styles from this system are notes-bibliography style (also called bibliography style) and parenthetical citations–reference list style (also called reference list style).

These styles are essentially the same as those in The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, with small adjustments for the needs of student writers. (Source)


The University of Chicago Press provides examples for both print and electronic sources on its website. These examples include instances of more than one author, articles from online databases, and more.

Chicago Online Guides

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date.

Use of the notes and bibliography style is often preferred in humanities such as literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and a bibliography.

The author-date style is very similar in content, but slightly different in format. This system is preferred in the sciences, including social sciences. Browse the websites below for more information and examples of both forms.

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